AngelScript
Class hierarchies

AngelScript cannot automatically determine relationships between registered classes, so in order to establish the hierarchies for use within the script language it is necessary to do a bit more registration beyond the normal object registration.

Hierarchies can currently only be registered for reference types, not for value types.

Establishing the relationship

In order to let AngelScript know that two types are related you need to register the reference cast behaviours asBEHAVE_REF_CAST and asBEHAVE_IMPLICIT_REF_CAST. The asBEHAVE_REF_CAST should be used if you only want to allow the cast through an explicit call with the cast<class> operator. asBEHAVE_IMPLICIT_REF_CAST should be used when you want to allow the compiler to implicitly perform the cast as necessary.

Usually you'll want to use asBEHAVE_IMPLICIT_REF_CAST for casts from a derived type to the base type, and asBEHAVE_REF_CAST for casts from a base type to a derived type.

// Example REF_CAST behaviour
template<class A, class B>
B* refCast(A* a)
{
// If the handle already is a null handle, then just return the null handle
if( !a ) return 0;
// Now try to dynamically cast the pointer to the wanted type
B* b = dynamic_cast<B*>(a);
if( b != 0 )
{
// Since the cast was made, we need to increase the ref counter for the returned handle
b->addref();
}
return b;
}
// Example registration of the behaviour
r = engine->RegisterObjectBehaviour("base", asBEHAVE_REF_CAST, "derived@ f()", asFUNCTION((refCast<base,derived>)), asCALL_CDECL_OBJLAST); assert( r >= 0 );
r = engine->RegisterObjectBehaviour("derived", asBEHAVE_IMPLICIT_REF_CAST, "base@ f()", asFUNCTION((refCast<derived,base>)), asCALL_CDECL_OBJLAST); assert( r >= 0 );

Note that it may be necessary to add extra parenthesis to the asFUNCTION macro so that the preprocessor doesn't interpret the , in the template declaration as the argument separator in the macro.

Remember that it is legal for the script to attempt a cast on a null pointer, in which case the result is also a null pointer. This means that the reference cast behaviour must not be implemented as a virtual class method, because then the call will crash if the object pointer is null.

Inherited methods and properties

Just as relationships cannot be determined, there is also no way to automatically let AngelScript add inherited methods and properties to derived types. The reason for this is that method pointers and property offsets may differ between the base class and derived class, especially when multiple inheritance is used, and there is no way to automatically determine exactly what the difference is.

For this reason the application needs to register all the inherited methods and properties for the derived classes, which may lead to a bit of duplicate code. However, you may be able to avoid the duplication through a bit of clever thinking. Here is an example of registering the methods and properties for a base class and the derived class (registration of behaviours has been omitted for briefness):

// The base class
class base
{
public:
virtual void aMethod();
int aProperty;
};
// The derived class
class derived : public base
{
public:
virtual void aNewMethod();
int aNewProperty;
};
// The code to register the classes
// This is implemented as a template function, to support multiple inheritance
template <class T>
void RegisterBaseMembers(asIScriptEngine *engine, const char *type)
{
int r;
r = engine->RegisterObjectMethod(type, "void aMethod()", asMETHOD(T, aMethod), asCALL_THISCALL); assert( r >= 0 );
r = engine->RegisterObjectProperty(type, "int aProperty", asOFFSET(T, aProperty)); assert( r >= 0 );
}
template <class T>
void RegisterDerivedMembers(asIScriptEngine *engine, const char *type)
{
int r;
// Register the inherited members by calling
// the registration of the base members
RegisterBaseMembers<T>(engine, type);
// Now register the new members
r = engine->RegisterObjectMethod(type, "void aNewMethod()", asMETHOD(T, aNewMethod), asCALL_THISCALL); assert( r >= 0 );
r = engine->RegisterObjectProperty(type, "int aProperty", asOFFSET(T, aProperty)); assert( r >= 0 );
}
void RegisterTypes(asIScriptEngine *engine)
{
int r;
// Register the base type
r = engine->RegisterObjectType("base", 0, asOBJ_REF); assert( r >= 0 );
RegisterBaseMembers<base>(engine, "base");
// Register the derived type
r = engine->RegisterObjectType("derived", 0, asOBJ_REF); assert( r >= 0 );
RegisterDerivedMembers<derived>(engine, "derived");
}